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Four types of Artificial Intelligence

2 min. reading
Artificial Intelligence / 15 July, 2021

Karla García Gil Journalist

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Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a combination of algorithms whose purpose is to create machines that possess human-like characteristics. Although this technology is present in our daily lives, it still seems somewhat mysterious and distant to us.


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Types of AI

  1. Reactive systems

Reactive machines are the most basic type of AI since they are based on making decisions about the present. Lacking memory, it is impossible for them to learn from experiences and therefore there is no evolution of any kind.

An example of this type of AI can be found in Deep Blue, a computer that beat the chess champion Kasparov. This machine is able to identify the pieces on a chessboard and know how each of them moves, however, it has no memory of what has happened before.

  1. Limited memory

The second type of Artificial Intelligence refers to machines that are able to look into the past. Autonomous vehicles are an example of this, since they can observe the speed and direction of other cars and monitor them over time. In this sense, skills are developed, such as when the vehicle makes decisions about when to change lanes or performs a maneuver to avoid being rammed.

Despite the above, such experience about the past is transitory, since it is not stored within the car’s library of experiences and therefore cannot compile the information for years, as a human being would do.

  1. Theory of mind

Machines in this category are more advanced, since they not only form representations about the world, but also about other agents. This is called “theory of mind” and implies the understanding that every entity is capable of having thoughts and emotions that affect its behavioral pattern.

This is important because, if machines are to live among us, they must have an understanding of how we living beings think and feel. Consequently, they will have to adjust their behavior.

  1. Self-awareness

The final step in the development of artificial intelligence is to build systems that can form representations not only about the world but also about themselves, i.e. that are self-aware and capable of knowing their internal states and understanding the feelings of others.

The four types of artificial intelligence shed light on man’s intentions for the future of machines. Although we are still a long way from self-aware AI, it is clear that this is the ultimate goal, with efforts focused on developing memory, learning and the ability to make decisions based on previous experience.

Undoubtedly, many of the most relevant aspects of our lives are and will be increasingly immersed in AI, which is why it is an industry that represents great prospects for the future.


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